Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.
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In such a case, top government officials, including the President of the Republic, can be considered securitizing actors who designate the maras as an existential threat to the referent object of public and citizen security.
4. Case studies
Hide Footnote A number of women active in the maras have reported they formed teenage hondueas with gang members to escape a life of domestic drudgery, poverty and violence, including sexual abuse.
Hide Footnote The environment and illicit opportunities of the territory the maras took over and the traits of the communities living there were at the heart of this adaptive flexibility.
Hide Footnote A Spanish priest was convicted to two and a half years in jail, and freed on parole, on charges of bringing items illegally into prison. Hide Footnote Neither El Salvador nor Honduras initially featured rival criminal structures or vibrant community networks with the same strength lfy Guatemala.
In addition, a suggested youth violence prevention program has not been translated into public policies so far, 55 nor have the Guatemalan authorities been able to create a legal framework for the repression or the prevention of youth-related violence and crime Berlin et al.
Hide Footnote Close monitoring of these efforts would help to assess their effectiveness, and the extent to which they could be copied. In addition, a substantial lack of resources for prevention and rehabilitation initiatives, and for addressing the social tensions that make the resort to gangs and crime honduas, may explain why the Guatemalan state has not been able to contain the violence until now Brands Your e-mail has be sent.
Despite representing a major antijaras in U. Inthe Salvadoran Supreme Court reclassified MS and B as terrorist organisations, thereby criminalising any collaboration with them.
Male control over female bodies, and determination of female activities within the group, are integral to gang culture. As the maras were increasingly discussed in public, they arguably turned into a politicized matter by the end of the s.
Anntimaras police and the military additionally played a significant role in carrying out the provisions of the law and the Mano Dura policies more generally e. The MS and one of the B factions have recently expressed willingness to enter into talks with the Salvadoran government, which so far has refused to entertain the idea.
The Construction of the Maras – 4. Case studies – Graduate Institute Publications
La Prensa LibreMay 14, http: Although consideration has been given to renewing these efforts under the aegis of the Central American Regional Security Initiative CARSIviolence prevention attempts deal mainly with affected communities and not gang members themselves. Indeed, Ribando Seelke The prison system should be reformed to strengthen management through better training and protection.
At the lowest rungs of the ladder, so-called paros or banderas flags act as auxiliaries, collectors of extortion money, gun-runners, spies and recruitment officers. Extortions and threats did not vary as significantly as homicides during the truce, and doubled afterwards.
El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras | Crisis Group
FamilyFriends and Violence Cambridge,p. The way in which the public perceived the maras was therefore greatly influenced by the news and discourses on crime Lambert Solo en84 taxistas fueron asesinados. In The Construction of the Maras: Exactly when and where the street gangs took up the name is unclear. From tothe annual homicide rate, for example, rose from 2, to 2, murders Wolf Hide Footnote Meanwhile, drug consumption mostly marijuana by maras across the Northern Triangle is extremely common.
Hide Footnote These cases are reportedly responsible for an increase in the migration northward of Hondurax American girls, as well as the very high rates of Salvadoran girls changing or quitting school. He also argues for dedicated anti-gang units of the police, and the use of states of emergency to place a curfew on minors and allow police to enter leey without a warrant.
The force has been set up to coordinate the fight against transnational crime, explicitly including gangs, narcotics and human trafficking, as well as smuggling, and is set to involve joint operations by the police, army and tax agencies from each country. Obstacles and Opportunities20 July Originally published in El Pulso. Hide Footnote The U.
The broader sexual violence in society and the particular abuses honfuras gangs do not appear to have deterred girls from joining the maras. Hide Footnote But the measures were unable to sustain any long-term violence reduction as most suspects were released due to a lack of evidence, or underwent repeated short-term detention. In the wake of the mass detention of gang members across the Northern Triangle, the hub of these extortion antmiaras shifted to prisons, where maras established in effect new territorial enclaves as a result of the extremely weak official control over jails.
Hide Footnote Most of them depended on low-wage jobs, and 21 per cent lived below the poverty line. Although the Berger administration kept its distance from the media between andmedia coverage tends to be one-sided and seems to inflate the gang problem. Overview of government discourse and policies towards gangs per president, Guatemala Credits Sources: El Salvador proposes hardline anti-gang policies.
El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras
Hide Footnote Taxi drivers in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, are favoured extortion targets, and are forced to pay the gangs who control the areas where their pick-up stations are located: In the longer term, defusing gang violence will depend on implementation of various overlapping policy innovations, several of which are suggested below.
Consensus is hard to reach, decisions are stalled abtimaras implementation is weak.
Rooted in the sense of exclusion and need for belonging of young people in urban peripheries across the Northern Triangle, the maras have evolved into violent and complex criminal organisations. Homicide levels started to escalate to pre-truce levels, reaching an unprecedented high in