Alan Cruse’s book is published as part of a series of thematic glossaries devoted to different fields of This volume is concerned with two disciplines: semantics and pragmatics. 96), one would also expect to find “lexicography” and “lexicon” . consist of more than one lexical constituent; second that it should be a single minimal semantic constituent’ (Cruse ). ‘The principle of idiom is that a. Lexical semantics Lexical semantics studies the meanings of words; the focus here The account given here largely follows that given in Cruse ().
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A third type of specificity is intensity-specificity, where one range of degrees of some property is included in another range. From 14 and 15 we can conclude that huge is more intense than large, and terrified than scared.
Meaning in Language : An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics
Since this book is not intended to propound a body of theory, but to acquaint non-specialists with the range of semantic phenomena in language, there is a bias towards descriptive coverage at the expense of theoretical rigour. But what does it mean to say that teach is a three-place predicate?
They are also likely to give emphasis to marginal smantics of linguistic signification. As far as point iii is concerned, the descriptive meaning of the sentence can be displaced in the sense that it can be used to refer to events distant in time and space from the speech event: However, some words seem to be potentially, but not necessarily 60 Meaning in language expressive. Other aspects of meaning which do not fall under propositional content are expressive meaning: They are related to, but not identical to, relations that logicians recognize between pro- positions.
Let us see how these criteria operate with a sentence which contains both descriptive and non-descriptive meaning: This observation presumably provides a clue to the role of meaning in word recognition to the best of my knowledge it is still a puzzle.
Some words possess only expressive and no descriptive meaning and to these we can assign the term expletives: The word bloody, however, has no descriptive function: A Practical Introduction to Phonetics J. If John receives no money, he is simply giving the car away; if there is no car, Mary is just giving John some money; if there is no one to receive the money and concede semanitcs of the car, then Mary is throwing her money away and taking possession of the car.
There are perhaps three key aspects. John is no longer singing.
The essence of zeugma is the attempt to make a single expression do two semantic jobs at the same time. If this makes a negligible effect on the meaning, then it is a case of mention: Five relations will be recognized here: Out of a set of near-synonyms, it sometimes happens that some but not others can be expressively stressed: Presupposition is just touched on in this chapter; Cruse V gives a fuller, but still introductory, survey of different theoretical approaches; a much more detailed account can be found in Levinson XI1.
A molecule of water con- tains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. These are characterized in different ways by different scholars, but there is substantial overlap in respect of the sort of meaning they are referring to; we shall adopt Lyons’s term descriptive as being the best suited to our purposes.
John lectures in the Arts Faculty unilaterally entails John lectures in the university.
Johanna Salonen added it Jul 25, Yet another interpretation of the notion of basicness is the cognitive psy- chologists’ concept of a basic level category.
The concluding chapter briefly surveys the areas covered in the book, sug- gests practical applications of the study of meaning, and highlights areas which are currently poorly understood, and where further research is needed. This means, in particular, that the meaning of a linguistic expression is taken to arise senantics the fact crus the latter gives access to a particular conceptual content.
Alan Cruse, A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics
This paint is red. The item the, a word, exerts its semantic effect on a whole noun phrase the little old lady who lives in the cottage on the hill; the -e d of John kissed Mary, a bound morpheme, semantically situates the time relative to the moment of utterance of the whole event symbolized by John kiss Mary; a single word like matri- mony may mark a whole discourse as being in a certain sematics.
Jaszczolt Katarzyna, Semantics and Pragmatics: Thus Dogs are animals would translate as: Visit our Beautiful Books page and find lovely books for kids, photography lovers and more. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored alzn a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any alqn or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organizations.
This is most usually discussed in dichotomous terms as the figure- ground effect. Refresh and try again. Lesley is in her twenties, v a.
Take the case of a question. Or perhaps there is no such thing? Describing lexical Senses 2: So can the relations be anything: The existential quantifier says something like this: