ergogenic aid for increase sports performance seems to have potential () L-Arginine as a Potential Ergogenic Aidin Healthy Subjects. L-arginine as a potential ergogenic aid in healthy subjects. Sports Medicine, 41(3 ), doi/ Bahra, M., Kapil, V. Dietary nitrates and L-Arginine have been increasingly recognized to play a promising Recently, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a promising ergogenic aid by .. factor for exercise tolerance in healthy subjects, suggesting the potential of.
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Responses of muscle blood flow and protein metabolism to femoral artery clamp. Unlike the Arg-based studies, all NO 3 studies reported an increase in NOX levels, regardless of whether or not there was a positive performance effect reported.
However, perhaps the most widely explored metabolic fate of arginine is its conversion to nitric oxide via nitric oxide synthase. On the other hand, during cycling, L-Arginine supplementation has been associated to an increase in physical working capacity, before reaching neuromuscular fatigue [ 26 ].
L-Arginine as a potential ergogenic aid in healthy subjects.
Typically this amounts to about 1—2 kg in 4—7 d 7577 Indeed, studies show that people with impaired NO synthesis have poor exercise tolerance Lauer et al. Whether nitrate supplementation may be ergogenic during very high-intensity continuous or intermittent exercise has not been systematically evaluated. This could be related to enhanced delivery of amino acids to muscle as a result of arginine-induced NO synthesis.
Creatine supplementation patterns and perceived effects in select division I collegiate athletes. Nitrate intake, which has been positively associated with exercise capacity in humans, particularly in the form of beetroot products, varies greatly between different cultures, being important to establish the dose effect ranges and the duration of effects [ 172327 ].
Finally, despite the fact that creatine is normally found in cardiac muscle, brain, and testes, these areas remain essentially unstudied with respect to oral creatine supplementation.
Rather, it is more likely that any relation between muscle blood flow and muscle protein synthesis is related to the delivery of amino acids. Currently, satellite cell activation, an essential aspect to muscle tissue growth, is thought to be initiated by increased NO production in skeletal muscle [ 26 ].
The primary aim of ergogenic aids consumption is to improve exercise performance, muscle strength and delay the onset of fatigue [ 2 ]. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Acute creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic.
Nitric Oxide/Arginine: Is Cardiovascular Modulation Effects in Athletes Supplementation?
Whereas it is clear that exogenous amino acids stimulate muscle protein synthesis at rest 16following resistance exercise 1718 and in association with a subjectts of clinical conditions including burn injury 19sarcopenia subejcts21and cancer aiid 22evidence regarding the ergogenic effects of supplementation with individual amino acids such as arginine are equivocal.
Dietary nitrate does not enhance running performance in elite cross-country skiers. Even though NO, either from endogenous eNOS derived or exogenous sources, plays a pivotal role in cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear [ 11 ]. Whereas improvement in the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis is largely responsible for improvements in acute work capacity, the direct effect of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle protein synthesis is less clear.
Being w of the smallest and simplest biologically active molecules with enormous versatility and importance in the body, NO is a potent endogenous vasodilator responsible for increasing blood perfusion via shear stress and contributes to changes in blood flow during dynamic exercise and post-exercise recovery [ 1012 ].
Influence of nitrate supplementation on VO 2 kinetics and ergogenid of elite cyclists. Essential amino acids stimulate muscle protein anabolism in healthy older adults regardless of the presence of non-essential amino acids. Arg is known to actively participate in the synthesis of creatine Buford et al. L-Arginine supplementation seems to have no effect on post-exercise muscle hyperemia [ 47 ].
In contrast to arginine, numerous studies have reported that supplementation with the arginine metabolite creatine facilitates an increase in anaerobic work capacity and muscle mass when accompanied by resistance training programs in both normal and patient populations. Endogenous arginine is synthesized primarily in the kidney from l-ornithine and l-citrulline precursors 8. Citrulline Cit is a non-standard amino acid that can be converted to arginine in the body with the help of several enzymes Toda, Thus, athletes should be able to perform more repetitions and recover faster between sets compared to nonsupplemented controls In such instances, exogenous arginine provided parenterally or as a dietary supplement errgogenic been shown to facilitate the maintenance of lean body mass and improve functional capacity, benefits consistent with arginine’s well documented vasodilatory properties and effect on growth hormone secretion.
It therefore follows that an increase in delivery subjcts oxygen or energy substrates is not required to fuel an increase in muscle protein synthesis.
In such instances, the vasodilatory properties of arginine may facilitate an increase in O 2 delivery, which helps meet the increased demands caused by physical activity. The effect of l-arginine administration on muscle force and power in postmenopausal women.
Although NO is, per se, unstable, rapidly exerting its benefits gealthy to its high affinity to various hemecontaining proteins, determining several actions and regulating its biological short half-life, it has no role as a supplement, requiring the ingestion of other compounds that influence internal NO production systems [ 89 ].
A dose potentiaal study. It is a critical regulator l-aryinine vascular homeostasis and takes part in myointimal hyperplasia reduction [ 101415 ]. One of the reasons for the lack of performance improvements following dietary nitrate ingestion in endurance-trained athletes may be due to higher baseline levels of NO [ 8 ]. Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise.
L-Arginine as a potential ergogenic aid in healthy subjects.
NO is only responsible for a small proportion of the increase in muscle blood flow during exercise [ 47 ]. These results suggest that an increase in muscle blood flow without a concomitant increase in the plasma concentrations of the EAAs would likely decrease, rather than increase, the rate of muscle protein synthesis. It is, likewise, suggested that the increase of blood pressure derived from NO synthesis may improve recovery processes in the post-training period [ 8 ].
Nitrate and nitrite content in organically cultivated vegetables. Alternatively, it is possible that arginine has a more direct effect on the process of muscle protein synthesis that aiid the concurrent elevation of other amino acids to be reflected in an l-arginibe amount. It is unconditionally true that many athletes feel pressured to subjedts supplements to maintain a competitive advantage over their supplement using-peers, potentkal, physicians should give careful advice in order to prevent serious health risks [ 7 ].
It is wise to minutely analyze the cost-benefit ratio of ergogenic aids, keeping in mind its potential illegality, always staying on guard against false promises.