IEC WIND TURBINES – PART 1: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS. You may have heard that IEC defines wind turbine classes with labels like IIIB, where the roman number refers to a reference wind speed and the index letter. IEC. Second edition. Wind turbine generator systems –. Part 1 : Safety requirements. Aérogénérateurs –. Partie 1: Spécifications de sécurité.
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In flat terrain the wind speed increases logarithmically with height. This imposes simple limits on fifty-year extreme wind, flow inclination and wind shear, see Figure 1, whereas turbulence assessment is more complicated. It is, however, simpler to apply the site-assessment rules specified in another chapter of IEC Each load case is specified by combinations of mode of turbine operation, wind conditions, and load type.
Wind turbines are capital intensive, and are usually purchased before they are being erected and commissioned. For small wind turbines the global industry has been working towards harmonisation of certification requirements with a “test once, certify everywhere” objective.
The siting engineer must verify the safety of the deployed turbines. This article includes a list of referencesrelated reading or external linksbut its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Examples of modes of operation are normal operation, idling, and operation with yaw error. Wind load models are scaled differently for each wind turbine class, iex a class I A turbine is tested for higher extreme wind speed and more severe turbulence than a class II B turbine.
Depending on the load case, the wind interacting with the turbine is either deterministic or a pseudo-random wind field with realistic turbulence characteristics.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message. The is a set of design requirements made to ensure that wind turbines are appropriately engineered against damage from hazards within the planned lifetime. Small wind turbines are defined as being of up to m 2 swept area and a somewhat simplified IEC standard addresses these.
During the construction and design phase assumptions are made about the wind climate that the wind turbines will be exposed to.
This is the definition 61400- IEC edition 2. Retrieved 18 March In principle, the aeroelastic simulation could be repeated with local wind conditions at specific turbine positions. Turbine designers will typically model turbine vibrations and dynamic forces on critical components by aeroelastic simulation programs such as HAWC2. Wind classes determine which turbine is suitable for the normal wind conditions of a particular site.
Updated by Heidi Serny Jacobsen. Variable atmospheric stability, unsteady wind, and directional variation of upwind terrain will introduce variations in observed turbulence intensity.
In Canada, the previous national standards were outdated and impeded the wind industry, and they were updated and harmonized with by the Canadian Standards Association with several modifications. Unlike the NTM turbulence model, site-specific turbulence usually depends on wind direction. Aeroelastic simulations are processed for all IEC load cases, and turbine safety is verified for each ifc the deterministic load cases. List of International Electrotechnical Commission standards.
The IEC 61400-1 turbine safety standard
Wind turbines are designed for specific conditions. It is also possible to use the IEC standard for turbines of less than m 2 swept area. Material damage has a highly non-linearly relation to load amplitudes and thus to turbulence intensity, so a few situations with extreme turbulence may cause most of the fatigue damage.
Effective turbulence intensity will generally decrease with wind speed due to decreasing stability effects and turbine thrust coefficient. The standard concerns most aspects of the turbine life from site conditions before construction, to turbine components being tested,  assembled and operated.
The effective turbulence intensity includes added turbulence from wakes of neighbour turbines, and a simple wake turbulence model is provided.
IEC – Wikipedia
The IEC turbine safety standard. Normally the wind speed increases with increasing height. This page was last edited on 26 Septemberat Views Read Edit View history. Turbulence intensity quantifies how much the wind varies typically within 10 minutes.
In addition, the accumulated fatigue damage caused by stochastic forcing is evaluated for a design life time of twenty years and compared to the material strength. Basic Aspects” Suzlon Energy. Turbine classes are determined by three parameters – the average wind speed, extreme year gust, and turbulence.
Wind conditions are specified by extreme wind speed, vertical wind shear, flow inclination, turbulence and rare gust-like events.