History Begins at Sumer has ratings and 33 reviews. Yann said: Dans ce livre, Samuel Noah Kramer met les écrits sumériens à l’honneur, plus qu’il ne. History Begins at Sumer. ThirtyNine Firsts in Recorded History. Samuel Noah Kramer. University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia. Read the full-text online edition of History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine Firsts in Recorded History ().
|Published (Last):||1 September 2018|
|PDF File Size:||10.45 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||1.10 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
After a final upbraiding for the son’s pursuit of materialistic success rather than humanistic endeavor, the text becomes rather obscure; it seems to consist of brief, pithy sayings, intended perhaps to guide the son in true wisdom. Did they have a device corresponding to the voting technique of our own day? Chapter 7 tells about one of the most precious documents in the history of political evolution — a contemporary account of a social reform, including a rather enviable tax-reduction program that took place about thirty years after the death of Entemena of Lagash.
Then did Ningirsu, Enlil’s foremost warrior, do battle with the men of Umma in accordance with his Enid’s straightforward word; by the word of Enlil he hurled the great net upon them, and heaped up their skeleton?
Its primary purpose was to record the restoration of the boundary ditch between Lagash and Umma, which had been destroyed in a struggle between the two cities. Most of the students came from wealthy families; the poor could hardly afford the cost and time which a prolonged education demanded.
Where did you go?
History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-nine Firsts in Recorded History, page 1
The Ummaite who at any future time will cross the boundary ditch of Ningirsu and the boundary ditch of Nanshe in order to take to tjirty-nine fields and farms by force, whether he be really an Ummaite or a foreigner — may Enlil destroy him; may Ningirsu, after hurling his great net on him, bring down on him his lofty hand and his lofty foot; may the people of his city, having risen in rebellion, strike him down in the sumfr of his city.
But in any case, he continues, it is decreed by Enlil, the king of all the gods, that a son should follow his father’s profession. Moreover, he proceeded to “dry up” the boundary ditches; ripped out and put to fire both Mesilim’s and Eannatum’s steles with their irritating inscriptions; and destroyed the buildings and shrines which Eannatum had constructed along the boundary ditch to warn the Ummaites that they must not trespass on Lagash territory.
They multiplied barley for their father, maintained him in barley, oil, and wool.
Ush ripped out Mesilim’s stele to indicate that he was not bound by its terms, and then crossed the border and seized the northernmost territory belonging to Lagash, known as the Guedinna. It will demand the concentrated efforts of numerous Sumerologists over a period of years — especially in view of the fact that most of the sun-baked clay tablets came out of the ground broken and fragmentary, so that only a small part of their original contents is preserved on each piece.
On the table before me is a clay tablet written by a scribe who lived almost four thousand years ago.
Catalog Record: History begins at Sumer : thirty-nine firsts | Hathi Trust Digital Library
It was this Eannatum, according to our document, who attacked and defeated the Ummaites; made a new border treaty with Enakalli, then the ishakku of Umma; dug a ditch in line with the new boundary which would help insure the fertility of the Guedinna; erected there for purposes of future record the old Mesilim stele, as well as several steles of Page 40 his own; and constructed a number of buildings and shrines to several of the important Sumerian deities.
The breaks and lacunae of one tablet or fragment can therefore frequently be restored from duplicating pieces, which may themselves be in a fragmentary condition. Back in the day [pre Onion: He composes an answer for the herald to take back to his king, in which he admonishes Enmerkar for resorting to anus and says that he prefers the “contest” a fight between two selected champions.
But let the historian who lived in Lagash almost 4, years ago, and was therefore a contemporary of the events he reports, tell it more or less in his own words: Originally posted by apacheman While laudable, and interesting, I seriously doubt the claims of “firsts” without a ton of caveats More than half of the writing was destroyed, and what was preserved seemed at first hopelessly unintelligible.
In this period, three of us — the ladies Hatice Kizilyay and Muazzez Cig the Turkish curators of the Tablet Archives of the Istanbul Museum of the Ancient Orient and I — copied close to additional tablets and fragments. The firsts are derived mostly from documented stories as that was the traditional writing form of the ancient Sumerians. Perhaps not for long. Here, too, will be found an excellent representative cross section of their material culture — the columns and bricks with which they built their temples and palaces, their tools and weapons, pots and vases, harps and lyres, jewels and ornaments.
In order to set the event in its proper historical perspective, the archivist deemed it advisable to describe its political background. To be sure, Sumerian men of letters originated and developed a number of written literary genres — myths and epic tales, hymns and lamentations, proverbs and essays — and several of these, the epics and lamentations in particular, do utilize, at least to a very limited extent, what might be temied historical data.
History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine Firsts in Recorded History
Within its walls flourished the scholar- scientist, the man who studied whatever theological, botanical, zoological, mineralogical, geographical, mathematical, grammatical, and linguistic knowledge was current in his day, and who in some cases added to this knowledge.
Inanna, heeding Enmerkar’s plea, advises him to seek out a 2.
One keeps getting surprise and surprise. After the world had been created, and after the fate of the Page 54 land Sumer and of the city Ur the Biblical Ur of the Chaldees had been decided. Actually its secular ruler was the ishakku, who ruled the city as the representative of the tutelary deity to whom, in accordance with the Sumerian world view, the city had been allotted after the creation.
Figures 1, 7, and 26; Plates 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, and 34; and for making the photographs of Plates 13, 14, and 15 from illustrations in Decouvertes en Chaldee by Ernest de Thirty-nlne and Leon Heuzey.
King published sixteen excellently preserved tablets from the British Museum. In actual practice, while the temple corporation owned a good deal of land, which it rented out to some of the people as sharecroppers, much of the soil was the private property of the individual citizen.
That strikes me as recroded odd Enmerkar selects his herald and sends him to the lord of Aratta with a message threatening to destroy and make desolate his city unless he and his people bring down silver and gold and build and decorate Enki’s temple.
Nevertheless, he once again issues a challenge to Enmerkar. Turkey is a republic. Those recovered to date are chiefly of the following genres: Inflated with grandiose ambitions for themselves and their state, some of these mlers resorted to “imperialistic” wars and bloody conquests, hr a few cases they met with considerable success, and for a brief period one of them actually extended the sway of Lagash over Sumer as a whole, and even over several of the firstts states.
We may call it “Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. Of your brothers may you be their leader, of your recorder may you be thirtu-nine chief, may you rank the highest of the schoolboys. But none of these earlier tablets deal directly with the Sumerian school system, its organization, and its method of operation.