This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.
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Tautology means a useless repetition, which never occurs in the Veda.
It is impossible to perceive two things simultaneously. This general notion enables us on all subsequent occasions to recognise individual cows. These infer- ences, says an objector, are not necessarily correct, for a river may be swollen because embanked, the ants may carry off their eggs because their nests have been damaged, and the so-called screaming of a peacock may be nothing but the voice of a man.
Indian Philosophy Vol 4 Editor: If we see a river swollen we infer that there has been rain, if we see the ants carrying off their eggs, we infer that there will be rain and if we hear a peacock scream, we infer that clouds are gathering. Hence the body is not soul.
In respect of perceptibility of the object through which we pass, the. Hence you will not be able to establish the denial itself. Moreover, had there been obviousness in the ray it would have obstructed our vision by stand- ing as a screen between the eye and the thing.
The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara
Just as the proposition stands in need of proof so does the reason itself. A person, by the true knowledge of the sixteen categories, is able to remove his misapprehensions.
Hence we are not incapable of committing sins by killing or murder. Two miles to the east of the village there is another village named Alfalya- sthana where between a pair of trees lies a slab of stone identified with Ahalya in her accursed state. An individual is that -which has a definite form and is the abode of particular qualities.
It is only meet that the opponent should quit the company of a man who argues in this way. This much, however, is fixed that there is no fixity, or in other words, the absence of fixity is fixed. If perception is produced when a person is asleep or inattentive, it is because there is then tho predominance of his sense and its object though even then there is a faint conjunction of soul with mind.
In the Rigveda-saihhita as well as the Sathapatha-Brahmana of the. In other words, the auditory perception supersedes the visual perception, because the song is more attractive than the colour. There is a whole because we can hold, pull, etc.
Nyāya Sūtras – Wikipedia
The Nyayasutras assert that perception is the primary proper means of gaining true knowledge. Vocal actions which are bad are: But the ray of the eye-ball is not perceived as it is obvious neither in respect of colour nor in respect of touch.
Ancient Indian philosophical literature Epistemology literature Hindu texts History of logic Logic literature Metaphysics literature Nyaya Sutra literature. They acquire an apparent or conditional existence in virtue of a certain relation which exists between them. The word noun signifies all the three though prominence is given to one of them. Fallacies of a reason are the erratic, the contra- dictory, the equal to the question, the unproved, and the mistimed.
Purpose is that with an eye to which one proceeds to act. Audible Download Audio Books. Since a means of right knowledge may also be regarded as an object of right knowledge, suyra are required to establish the so-called means of right knowledge by another means of right knowledge and so on. Conjunction of soul with mind is a cause which operates in the production of all gxutama of knowledge, while the contact of a sense with its object is the cause which operates only in perception. The objects of sense are said to be many such as good smell, bad smell, white colour, yellow colour, bitter taste, sweet taste, pungent taste, warm touch, cold touch etc.
Comparison, some say, is not different suhra inference, for both seek to establish the unperceived by means of the perceived. It is, however, legitimate to suppose that sound is produced by the concussion, and that one sound produces another sound and so on until the last sound is heard at a great distance.
Suppose a preceptor delivers certain sounds in the form, of lec- ture which are received by his pupil.
The fact of his eating in the night has not been expressly slated but is ascertained from this consi- deration that a person who does not eat during the day cannot be stroug unless he eats in the night. Never- theless the principles of Nyiiya entering into the different systems of philosophy gave them each its proper compactness and cogency just as Bacon’s Inductive Method shaped the sciences and philosophies of a later age in a different country. C, mentions ” pa ififia ” in Sanskrit: Perfection is attained by the correct knowledge about true nature of sixteen categories: Ayurveda Dhanurveda Natya Shastra Sthapatyaveda.
The Nyaya-Sutra is divided into five books, each containing two mu. The Works, of which an English translation has been offered for the first time in the following pages, consist of.
We reply it is through convention that the meaning of a word is understood. Others say that the word noun must denote genus, otherwise why in an earthenware cow possessed of individuality and form do we not find immolation, etc.
I admit this and ask how you establish the means of right knowledge itself. This reprint of the great work is issued in response to the increasing demand of the scholars. Some say that the means of right knowledge are more than four, because rumour, presumption, proba- bility and non-existence are also valid.
Bodily actions which are bad are: Hence verbal testimony is considered by the objector to be a case of inference. Intellect, apprehension and knowledge — -these are not different from one another, [The term apprehension tcpalabdhi is generally used in the sense of perception pratyaltsa.
A soul which is no longer subject to transmigration is freed from all pains. If any one were to say that just as a single soldier or a single tree may not be seen from a distance but an army consisting of numerous soldiers or a forest consisting of numerous trees is seen, so a single atom may not be perceptible but a jar consisting of numerous atoms will be perceptible, and these atoms being called ‘ one jar,’ the use of ‘ one ‘ will not vanish. In consonance with the first interpretation we shall say that the sound coming out of the preceptor produces another sound and so on until the last sound reaches the pupil.