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In chapter four “Microscopic Cybernetics” the author starts out by repeating the characteristic of extreme specificity of enzymes and the extreme efficiency of the chemical machinery in living organisms. He also states that the complexity of the cybernetic network in living beings is far too complex to study by the overall behavior of whole organisms.
He believes this understanding will enable mankind to eliminate the dualism of differentiating between the brain and the mind. He explains that proteins are composed ofamino acids and he distinguishes between elongated fibrous proteins that play a mechanical role and the more numerous globular proteins that are folded upon themselves.
The sequence of the amino acid residues and the initial conditions determine the protein folding and therefore dictate the function. This spontaneity is due to the fact that the chemical potential needed to form the oligomer is present in the solution of monomers and because the bonds formed are non-covalent. In chapter eight “The Frontiers” Monod captures the sense of wonderment one feels when considering the extraordinary diversity and complexity of organisms that has been brought about through billions of years of evolution when he says ” The miracle stands “explained”; it does not strike us as any less miraculous” Monod, Monod says this suspension of natural selection is a peril to the species but that it will take quite a while for any serious effects and that there are more urgent dangers in modern society.
U then talks about the evolution of our ancestors including the development of upright posture which allowed them to become hunters. The Kingdom and darkness. With mild treatment protomers are separated and the oligomer protein loses function but if the initial “normal” conditions are restored the necrsidad will usually reassemble spontaneously. The author then spends some time developing the fact that the preceding sequence of amino acids had no bearing on what the next amino aazar will be.
The author proposes that man should rise above his need for explanation and fear of solitude to accept the ethic of knowledge and frames this ethic as accepting both the animal and ideal in man. Since the activation energy of a covalent bond is high the reaction will have a slower speed than that of a non-covalent bond which occurs spontaneously and rapidly.
Bonus Vita: Jacques Monod: El Azar y la necesidad!
In this book, Monod adopted the term teleonomic to permit recognition of purpose in biology without appealing to a final cause. The author then says that in the rest of the chapter he will address religious ideologies and philosophical systems that assume the reverse hypothesis: The author defines the primary telonomic project “as consisting in the transmission from generation to generation of the invariance content characteristic of the species” Monod, 14 the preservation and multiplication of the species.
Monod hypothesizes that language was not merely the product but one of the driving forces for the evolution of our central nervous system.
Azwr simple molecular mechanisms account for the integrative properties of allosteric enzymes. He brings up statistics that show a negative correlation between intelligence and the average number of children per couple and a positive correlation of intelligence between spouses which concentrates them among a shrinking elite.
By asserting the principle of objectivity, which is accepted in modern science, one is choosing necsidad adhere to what Monod calls the ethic of knowledge. First there must have been the formation of nucleotides and amino acids from simple carbon compounds and non-biological catalysts.
He goes on to explain that it is marginal because the living world is only a fraction of the universe. He goes on to state that he does not intend to make a thorough survey of modern biology but rather to “bring out the form of its key concepts and to point out their logical relationships with other areas of thought…it is an avowed attempt to extract the quintessence of the molecular theory of azzr code” Monod, xiii.
He offers the selective theory as being consistent with mecesidad postulate of objectivity and allowing for epistemological coherence. In reviewing the tertiary structure, what he calls the native shape, he talks about the non-covalent interactions which bind the amino acids and the folding that determines the molecules three-dimensional shape including the sterospecific binding site.
Jaime Echarri, Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. “In memoriam” – PhilPapers
Allosteric enzymes are usually under the simultaneous control omnod several monpd effectors. Cooperative and antagonistic interactions of ligands are indirect: In advancing the concept of gene complexes that they called operons, Jacob and Monod postulated the existence of a class of genes that regulate the function of other genes by affecting the synthesis of messenger RNA.
One is teleonomy which Monod defines as the characteristic of being “endowed with a purpose or project” Monod, 9. Once man extended his domain over the subhuman sphere and dominated his environment the main threat became other men and tribal warfare came to be an important evolutionary selection factor and this would favor group cohesion. Parallel activation takes place when the first enzyme of a metabolic sequence is activated by a metabolite synthesized by an independent parallel sequence.
The similarity throughout all organisms of chemical machinery in both structure and function is set out. Monod first gives an example of dissecting a computer and then points out how teleonomic performances can be seen on a molecular level. That mutations are unpredictable, faithfully replicated, and that natural selection operates only upon the products of chance is repeated at the start of chapter seven entitled “Evolution”.
The author makes the point that translation is irreversible and never necesidae place from protein to DNA. Here the author restates that nature is objective and does not pursue an end or have a purpose and he points out an apparent “epistemological [the study of the origin, nature, methods, and limits of jecesidad knowledge] contradiction” between the teleonomic character of living organisms and the principle of objectivity.
Feedback activation is when the enzyme is activated by a product of degradation of the terminal metabolite. Monod believes the ultimate aim of science is to “clarify man’s relationship to the universe” Monod, xi and from that reasoning he accords biology a central role. Each stage is more highly ordered and results from spontaneous interactions between products of the previous stage and the initial source is the genetic information represented by the polypeptide sequences.
The author then writes that a primary structure exists in a single or a small number of related states, as is the case with allosteric proteins precisely defined conformational native state under normal physiological conditions. With that cliffhanger of internal intellectual struggle Monod ends chapter one.
Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. “In memoriam”
He talks about the extraordinary specificity of action that enzymes display as exemplified by their ability to not only recognize a specific geometric isomer but an optical isomer as well.
The “error” in the genetic message will be replicated with a high degree of fidelity. Finally, it is the primary structure of proteins that we shall consult for the “secret” to those cognitive properties thanks to which, like Maxwell’s demons, they animate and build living systems” Monod Monod starts off chapter I entitled “Of Strange Objects” with a consideration of the difference between natural and artificial objects and states that “the basic premise of the scientific method Toward the end of the preface Monod offers apology for any overly tedious or technical sections.
Monod mentions oligomeric globular proteins again and how they appear in aggregates containing geometrically equivalent protomer subunits associated into a non-covalent steric complex.
Monod explains that the rate of mRNA synthesis from the lactose operon determines the rate of the proteins synthesis.
Monod writes that an enzymatic reaction can be seen in two steps: Three stages which led to the emergence of the first organism are proposed.
The rest of the chapter is a discussion of the principles that cell metabolism works by. He then brings up and defends against a possible thermodynamic objection to reproductive invariance and points out the extreme efficiency of the teleonomic apparatus in accomplishing the preservation and reproduction mojod the structure.