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E fatigue loading—periodic, or not periodic,? The result, sN, is given in Pa psi. See Asrm Method E for further explanations on symbols. In general, the curves E should not be extrapolated to other values of p. In test specimens, the two surfaces parallel to this plan view are termed side surfaces, and the four surfaces normal to this plan view the boundaries in the plan view are termed edge surfaces.

For force histories with hold times see Fig.

## Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing

The corresponding customary unit is in. E sample percentage—the percentage of observed values between two stated values of the variable under consideration.

E stretch zone width SZW [L]—the length of crack extension that occurs during crack-tip blunting, for example, prior to the onset of unstable brittle crack extension, pop-in, or slow stable crack extension.

E loading unloading rate e1832 T? A dynamometer for use in tension and in compression will have two dynamometer ranges, one in tension and one in E compression. For force strain histories with hold times, see Fig.

Ast precision—the closeness of agreement between randomly selected individual ast, or test results for a given set of experimental variables. E theoretical elastic stress concentration factor or stress concentration factor kt —the ratio of the greatest stress in the region of a notch or other stress concentrator as determined by the theory of elasticity or by experimental procedures that give equivalent values to the corresponding nominal stress. Examples are given in Fig. E environment composition [ML?

The calculation of K a is based upon measurements of both the arrested crack size and of the crack-mouth opening displacements prior to initiation of a fast-running crack and shortly after crack arrest. Although crack-tip conditions can be a function of crack velocity, the steadystate crack-tip conditions for metals have appeared to be independent of the crack velocity within the range attained by the loading rates speci?

The corresponding customary unit is mil. Traditionally, the symbol for stress is either S or sas a matter e18823 choice. For N, a log scale is commonly used.

E Caution is required in extending this concept to design. E pop-in—a discontinuity in the force against clip gage displacement record. E statistic—a summary value calculated from the observed values in a sample. E This value corresponds to P max. See a statistics text for an unbiased estimate of the standard deviation of a normal population.

E sample median—the 1 middle value when all observed values in a sample are arranged in order of magnitude if an odd number of items units are tested or 2 the average of the two middle-most values if an even number of items units are tested. The corresponding customary unit is ksi in. E independent variable—the selected and controlled variable namely, stress or strain.

In a linear-elastic homogeneous body, the signi? ee1823

## ASTM E1823 – 13

EE signi? In a stress-free body, the crack has two smooth surfaces that are coincident and join within the body along a smooth curve called the crack front; in two-dimensional representations the crack front is 1e823 the crack tip.

E yield strength, sYS [FL? The reference load may be identical to the mean force E of the history, but this is not required. E dynamometer dynamic forces [F]—the maximum and minimum forces or the mean force and the force amplitude that correspond to the readings obtained from the dynamometer output according to an existing static calibration.

However, any test behavior is automatically characterized as smooth crackgrowth behavior unless it satis? Astj reference load [F]—for spectrum asm, used in Practices E to denote the loading level that represents a steadystate condition upon which load variations are superimposed.

The values obtained by the two methods may differ. E fatigue cycle—See cycle. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at phonefaxor service astm. For specimens, this is the time required for the creep deformation zone to spread through a substantial portion of astmm uncracked ligament.

The listing of terms is alphabetical. E constant life diagram— in fatigue, a plot usually on rectangular coordinates of a family of curves each of which is for a single fatigue life, N, relating stress amplitude, Sa, to mean 3 stress, Sm, or maximum stress, Smax, or both, to minimum stress, Smin.

It is an estimate of the relationship between applied stress and the percentage of the population that would survive N cycles.

It is not the same as a con? The code L-TS, for example, means that the crack-plane is perpendicular to the direction of principal deformation L directionand the expected fracture direction is intermediate between T and S.

E circulation rate [L3 T? E In Test Method Ethe?

### ASTM E – 13 – Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing

Otherwise, the k f data are not consistent and are markedly dependent on the type of notch, the fatigue life of interest, and the value of the asgm stress. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. The symbol N see de? Accordingly, it is convenient to analyze log N using methods based on the normal Xstm distribution. E median fatigue life—the middle value of the observed fatigue lives, arranged in order of magnitude, of the individual specimens in a group tested under essentially identical conditions.