Purchase your copy of ASTM E – 02() as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM E at Engineering ASTM E – E – 02 The test methods provide for reporting of specic, distinctive informati.
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The grain size and area fraction values shown in that report format correspond to the appearance of the photomicrograph shown. Begin by outlining the distinct grain size regions in a given image, either on a transparent overlay placed over the projected image, or directly on a photomicrograph. However, the test methods described here for area fraction estimation may be of use in describing duplex grain structures.
An arbitrary division was made between the two distinct distributions of grain sizes. Current results may be erased by clicking on the “Erase Current Results” button. Assigning an average grain size value to a duplex grain size specimen does not adequately characterize the appearance of that specimen, and may even misrepresent its appearance. Use the “Duplex” button to start the programs designed to calculate zstm grain sizes.
On the overlay, also mark the outline of the total eld e118 view the limits of the image. The test methods separate duplex grain sizes into one of two distinct classes, then into specific types within those classes, and provide systems for grain size characterization of each type.
Choose any of several preparation functions with a single e11181 click. If there is any doubt whether a point falls inside or outside the outlined region, count the point as one half. The distribution of intercept lengths is much more efficiently determined using a semi-automated image analysis system with a digitizing tablet and electronic pencil or cursor, or using an automated image analysis system with electronic pencil or cursor.
Use this average and the overall product dimensions to calculate an estimated area fraction for that surface layer. If the specimen being examined is the full cross-section of a round bar, the longitudinal section should not be used to estimate the area fraction occupied by different grain sizes. The area of each of those regions is then measured by tracing its outline with the planimeter.
Note that it is not necessary to resolve the individual ne grains in the image. Duplex grain structures for example, multiphase alloys are not necessarily duplex in grain size, and as such are not the subject of these methods.
Examples of random duplex grain sizes include: These different applications are described in 8. Reduce that error by using graded area fraction comparison gures see Fig. The software provides fast and accurate detection of grain boundaries or grain face areas. Sampling and Test Specimens 7. Calibration is set by clicking on the “Calibrate” choice in the Dialog Menu Bar. For comparison of mechanical properties with metallurgical features, or for specication purposes, it may be important to be able to characterize grain size in such materials.
For comparison of mechanical properties with metallurgical features, or for specification purposes, it may be important to be able to characterize grain size in such materials. These data may be used to assess the nature of the observed grain size distribution, and to determine mean intercept lengths and area fractions for distinct segments of a total distribution. Precision and Bias 9.
An example of such a histogram is shown in Fig. The Planimetric Procedure of E does not lend itself to determination of grain size in distinct small areas, and so should not be used.
ASTM E – 02() – Standard Test Methods for Characterizing Duplex Grain Sizes
For example, averaging two distinctly different grain sizes may result in reporting a size that does not actually exist anywhere in the specimen. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. For instance, banding present in a given specimen may not be easily recognizable in a transverse orientation. One, the Adtm Measurement Procedure see 8. Any of the Intercept Procedures of E may be used, within the regions of distinct grain size. Classication of the duplex grain size see 8.
Measures grain boundary intercept distances or individual grain areas.
Such a method is subject to considerable error. The data in this example were gathered from that photomicrograph, using the procedure of 8.
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For the coarse grain size, the number of intercepts totaled 13, and the intercept length totaled Accordingly, the longitudinal orientation is recommended, with one exception. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. For instance, in Table X2. An example photomicrograph of the banding condition appears in Fig. Estimate the e11811 fraction for the grain size being evaluated as the total of the areas of the outlined regions, divided by the total image area.
Asfm layer depth of 3.
ASTM E – 02() Standard Test Methods for Characterizing Duplex Grain Sizes
Signicance and Use 5. A sample application of this procedure appears in Appendix X1, along with formulas for calculating mean intercept lengths, and area fractions. Selecting only part of the specimen surface may inadvertently eliminate areas that have high or low concentrations of one of e1811 grain sizes, thus biasing the estimate. The histogram suggests that the specimen evaluated contains more than a single distribution of grain sizes.
Use of the grid is described in Methods E Follow this process for each grain in turn along one grid line, and repeat the process for each grid line.
The chart shows different area percentages of light grains among dark grains. If this is not practical, apply the estimation procedure to as much of the aetm as is reasonable, but recognize that, by not sampling all of the specimen area, some undened bias may be introduced into the estimate.